where did spiny water flea come from

And there is a lot to clean up. The water flea wreaks havoc on our lakes by eating up all the zooplankton. The barbed tail spine makes it difficult for predators to swallow this organism, and, after attempting to eat it, they often spit it back out. Reversing the damage caused by the spiny water fleas would cost $86.5 million to $163 million, according to the study. An introduced invertebrate predator (Bythotrephes) reduces zooplankton species richness. ��L��/phQ�m�NeѬH3�V����s�&�����|���؞��g���eMÅ�}���Ma]����+���I~��}^�Ӝ/�R��I�/J�j�e uUbUIx^��m?����#�u�@\�T���t: q��.A:�� ��$3w)����iz� ;�}��J�}8 Z�!�1���)�� ��υ�%̓���a����F``�0q8h�b�Bi�P�~���@��k T�7�`�j€;����m��@�� �������w�l^D�&�* h�����@�zo���,5z3��1��#�-[칶�Ruش�P��Ö���(�Z�[��m�vcس�e[l����*�rĚ{8���v�j��1[kK~����VG5�/D9�KQs7��)�(�Bl�͸(K�[�4���&&i��L��P�LK�`��3G?�����q�$BC�$VO�n:a�� �+6�K�&\ �~ ��@�_M�{F��{�E,W��iaF7���ꢼU�DY�._��B�е*���h��w���]�P�E\��y�vϰ�Vэ�*֦�>�'P[�T����^���6훈�G��t�j�q��vA�-����dW��Ŷ=��9A�=�����-�C��P���p�p)�氇KG˸]'��M�ƴ�����ݯp��ܽ6�'��'�5�=L$��q�ga�f��}��}� #��D����l��Qy�;"�[�c�wI,Z�e� ��Sە�ֽ�)]�H�������1�i"F�m�� ��0��U՚���\�^��m]�e{��;g�5�6k^��滢���X��d�44�Ws��-�"~��ׄ�|�Ʀ����2F'p����ݗ��7��ׇ���$�mj! %PDF-1.6 %���� Bythotrephes longimanus (also Bythotrephes cederstroemi), or the spiny water flea, is a planktonic crustacean less than 15 millimetres (0.6 in) long. Use them to tell the temperature, NASA astronaut captures Belle Isle image from space. Editor: David Poulson Location of spiny water flea in the United States. “Compliance is not great,” Carpenter said. The “spinys” are a problem because they are big enough to eat other zooplankton, such as daphnia, Carpenter said. “I think the message to the local community is now is the time to redouble that effort.”. “Not every farmer agrees or is willing to help out to reduce the pollution problem, so there’s a lot of variability among farmers and really you need all of them to carry the ball.”. They get into new bodies of water primarily by hitching a ride in the ballast water of boats. ��@,��5��g�0 ��� This is their natural habitat, but they need to find a warm-blooded host to survive (preferably with fur so they can hold on). A tiny invasive species, the spiny water flea, is decimating plankton in the lakes, rattling an ecosystem that supports valuable fisheries. The research has implications for other lakes in the region as well. “What [farmers] are trying to do essentially is to provide sewage treatment for cows.”. Asked by Wiki User. What does the spiny waterflea look like? That loss is felt hard by nearby residents. The spiny water flea was first found in North America in 1984 in Lake Huron. ��B8Z��I�;�Nm��~�[�ql��Ի� 6�������]�ӄ�'\/ JI ���0,JNX ��l�ךH��ئ��HM��'�SId@�G)Q8��)F8��qU�P�^(I����'�'��D�}�1�ORE4�����]����#z��;�Ni��y�N���3�wŧA���@�ln: ����p��㖮�w��������&�t%�p��i�,+v���d&��Jp�g�����G|��'���5|%�����YB�gb���fx� ó�%���z��b2���|h�WO�v8�3���(�S�lq�3��mN8�L��O���K﮶X@m;JT� ��]��~A�DE����pj����{7(��L��fݤ���0����� This means that if your yard has an infestation, they will likely target your dog or cat. Where did the spiny water flea come from and how did it get here? How do they damage our lakes? Fishhook waterfleas were first discovered in Lake Ontario in 1998, then spread to parts of lakes Michigan, Erie, and the Finger Lakes of New York. 2013-05-28 15:18:05 2013-05-28 15:18:05. Thought to have arrived in ballast water, it rapidly spread throughout the Great Lakes. “People love Lake Mendota, they love doing things on Lake Mendota, and having clearer water makes that better,” Walsh said. They can also latch on to fishing equipment. The first report of spiny and fishhook waterfleas in North America were both in Lake Ontario – spiny waterflea in 1982 and fishhook waterflea in 1998. Farmers could also reduce or eliminate the use of commercial phosphorus fertilizer, which also runs off of fields and into lakes. The spiny water flea lives in Lake Michigan and possibly some inland lakes. That ballast happened to contain spiny water flea. And with some simple math that chirping can be utilized to tell the temperature. Daphnia, a genus of small planktonic crustaceans, are 0.2–5 millimetres (0.01–0.20 in) in length. Photo: Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. That means the costs of invasions are much higher than anticipated, the researchers said. (http://greatlakesecho.org/2016/03/29/spiny-water-flea-clouds-lake-and-its-future/). They reached the Great Sacandaga Lake on the … But another point: the water fleas might not be there to stay. A species profile for Spiny Water Flea. A recent study of a Wisconsin lake reveals what may be in store for inland lakes throughout the Great Lakes … endstream endobj 31 0 obj <>stream Native to Northern Europe, the spiny waterflea probably arrived via ballast water. 27 0 obj <> endobj It made its way to the Great Lakes by 1984 and probably reached our lakes not long after. Changes in zooplankton and the phenology of the spiny water flea, Bythotrephes, following its invasion of Harp Lake, Ontario, Canada. The invader came from the Caspian Sea in Asia and spread throughout Europe, said Steve Carpenter, co-author of the study and director of the Center for Limnology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Daphnia in Lake Mendota have been reduced by 60 percent, leading to almost 3 feet of lost water clarity, says the study. Their spiky tail keeps them from being consumed by smaller fish, which allows for high populations that outcompete native fish and zooplankton for food resources. 3 4 5. Evidence demonstrates that spiny water flea had a prolonged history of low abundance in both lakes before about the year 2000 at which time it began to increase rapidly. Taxonomy: available through www.itis.gov. It was then found in Peck Lake in 2009, Stewarts Bridge Reservoir in 201… Rudstam. Top Answer. It was first discovered in Lake Huron in 1984 and likely introduced through the ballast water of ocean going ships. The invasive crustacean has clouded that state’s. 2002); may also compete with some native species, such as perch and small crustaceans (Branstrator and Lehman 1996) Like zebra mussels, quagga mussels and round gobies, spiny water fleas were first discovered in the Great Lakes in the 1980s, likely arriving in the ballast of ocean-going ships that pumped out the Eurasian water from the bilge before loading on cargo. The area values the water clarity that was lost at $140 million, according to a survey done in 2001. Like Daphnia, which is also a type of water flea, Spiny Water Fleas can either reproduce asexually, to achieve very dense populations, or sexually, to produce hardy resting eggs. That means it takes a long time to clean it up. The spiny water flea (Bythotrephes longimanus) has cut visibility in Lake Mendota in Wisconsin by 1 metre since it was first spotted there in 2009. 46 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<689B82E174147B4C942C148A1003B548>]/Index[27 49]/Info 26 0 R/Length 100/Prev 693994/Root 28 0 R/Size 76/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream Both waterfleas are species of zooplankton – small animals that rely on water currents and … Spinys not only threaten water clarity, their spines get caught in fishing lines, wrecking fishing gear, according to the United States Geological Survey. The first report of spiny waterfleas in North America was in 1982, in Lake Ontario. Warner, W.G. Although we typically notice fleas when they are on our pets, they usually come from the great outdoors. ]�Z��m�~>�42�C��Ӯϓn��v����tE���^�_�jY}�Z�~!�XZ��G��e&��R��#B�����4-?�=f� �O�� The steady sound of crickets chirping in the evening is a staple of a midwest summer. The Spiny Water Flea originates from the northern Eurasian area. We're a project of the Knight Center for Environmental Journalism at Michigan State University. It was most likely transported from Lake Michigan by people fishing. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 58(12):2341-2350. Answer. Parthenogenically produced animals have kink in middle of their spine and sexually produced animals lack the kink. Wiki User Answered . There was no evidence of spiny water flea in the sediments of Lake Winnibigoshish. Most of the state’s 240 farmers markets survived during the pandemic that upended the way fresh produce, baked goods and other items are sold at the popular venues. "We have it in a dozen or so lakes. Touring is the winter art of enjoying the woods and the company you're with. Email: poulsondavid@gmail.com, - Environmental news of the Great Lakes region, Knight Center for Environmental Journalism, Michigan farmers markets adjust to the pandemic, Hear crickets chirping in the evening? Has caused a decline in the population of zooplankton as a result of predation (Vanderploeg et al. By MORGAN LINN Capital News Service LANSING — The spiny water flea is a small invader of lakes in Michigan that could cause big and expensive problems. Lake Mendota, which could cost millions of dollars to restore, according to a new study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Your email address will not be published. “The spiny water flea eats all the daphnia and water clarity gets worse because there is nothing there to keep algae growth in check.”. Although the spiny water flea established itself in the Great Lakes more than 25 ago, the long-term effects of its feeding practices are yet to be determined. %%EOF Zooplankton that are prey and competitors of spiny water flea often declined in abundance after spiny water flea increased in abundance. Daphnia are members of the order Cladocera, and are one of the several small aquatic crustaceans commonly called water fleas because their saltatory swimming style resembles the movements of fleas. It’s been detected in each of the Madison lakes, and a few of the northern Wisconsin lakes as well as in the Northern Highlands Lake District," said University of Wisconsin-Madison Center for Limnology researcher and freshwater ecologist Jake Walsh. Spiny Water Flea Where did they come from? References: (click for full references) Benoit, H.P., O.E. A tiny flea with a massive appetite is causing big trouble in the Great Lakes. Spiny water fleas are native to Eurasia and were probably brought into the Great Lakes in the ballast water of ocean-going freighters. However, population densities of the fishhook water flea increase with distance from shore (IUCN 2010), suggesting that this species may be able to occupy the entire region, including the deeper waters of Lake Superior, given sufficient time (USEPA 2008). The spiny water flea may attach it to fishing line, downriggers, fishing nets, and other fishing equipment which has caused the spread of the water flea to inland lakes and rivers. Both species were introduced to the Great Lakes in ballast water from ocean-going ships. h�ԘmS�8ǿ��w�Ճ%�3��4@ Email: GreatLakesEcho@gmail.com Spiny waterfleas were discovered in Lake Ontario in 1982, then spread to all of the Great Lakes, and some inland lakes including Lake Champlain. And it’s unsure who should pay that bill, Walsh said. Spiny and fishhook waterfleas are small aquatic predators native to Eurasia. Image: Richard Hurd on flickr. The spiny water flea is a small invader causing big problems in Wisconsin. The Detroit River is one of the most important waterways in the Great Lakes system, according to NASA’s post. A member of the genus daphnia and the order Cladocera, the crustacean is only distantly related to land-based fleas. Yan ND; Girard R; Boudreau S, 2002. It is native to fresh waters of Northern Europe and Asia, but has been accidentally introduced and widely distributed in the Great Lakes area of North America since the 1980s. Previous estimates of how much invasions cost did not include smaller but valuable inland lakes like Lake Mendota. It was accidentally transported across the Atlantic and up the St. Lawrence River by freighters, he said. It was discovered in Lake Ontario in 1982 and is now in all of the Great Lakes and some inland lakes as well. The spiny water flea looks like a glob of jelly with black spots. Johannsson, D.M. As it grows, it sheds the outer shell over its body, but not over its spine. Lake Mendota. The spiny water flea was introduced into the region in the 1980s and has proliferated through all five of the Great Lakes, according to the study. Since they prefer cooler waters and invaded Lake Mendota when temperatures were exceptionally low, rising water temperatures may prove harmful, Carpenter said. To keep them from spreading, boaters should thoroughly wash and dry boats before moving to another lake, Walsh said. Since then, populations have exploded. Dark brown indicates presence of fleas. Although small, the spiny water flea can have a profound effect on waterbodies. 0 What would work best is a partnership between citizens and farmers. The water flea is a microscopic crustacean that gets its nickname from the jerky, flea-like motions it makes while swimming. You just happen to do this on cross-country skis. To reverse the damage done by the spinys, the phosphorus would have to be reduced by 71 percent. 5 Minute Read By Tim Folger 75 0 obj <>stream “One way to get rid of algae is to not fertilize them, and another way is to eat them,” he said. Where did the spiny waterflea come from? You are using an outdated browser that is no longer supported by Ontario.ca. Distribution References. Spiny water fleas were first found in North America in 1982 in Lake Ontario. Daphnia eat “so much algae that the lake becomes clear,” said Jake Walsh, the main, author of the study and a graduate student at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The root of the problem is the increasing amount of phosphorus that fertilizes the algae, Carpenter said. Related article about preventative measures and the impact of spiny water flea here. h�b``�g``�``b`e� b�?3�0p4����0���)GG�������A��GA�k[Á ���:��#��9 ��� >e�> �+����� It was confirmed in Lake Ontario and Lake Erie in 1985, Lake Michigan in 1986 and Lake Superior in 1987. endstream endobj 28 0 obj <> endobj 29 0 obj <>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/Type/Page>> endobj 30 0 obj <>stream Since then they have spread throughout the Great Lakes and a number of inland water bodies. More than 600 species have been described and cataloged as of 2011, and many more species are expected to be identified. Lake Mendota, near Madison, now suffers the consequences. Phone: 517 432 5417 Bythotrephes is typified by a long abdominal spine with several barbs which protect it from predators. The invader came from the Caspian Sea in Asia and spread throughout Europe, said Steve Carpenter, co-author of the study and director of the Center for Limnology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. h�bbd```b``:"�d6�d;"y�A$/?��܇��� ��D������#$Y%.�ُ�d&�L.0�=��]��� h�*�PfP���^>0 ��m Spiny waterfleas are small aquatic predators native to Eurasia. The spiny water flea has invaded Wisconsin lakes, causing trouble for both fishermen and fish. It was discovered in Great Sacandaga Lake, N.Y. in September 2008, just 108 miles northwest of Quabbin. But there is hope for Lake Mendota. They were introduced to the Great Lakes in ballast water from ocean-going ships. Great Lakes Echo Ecology Letters, 5(4):481-485. endstream endobj startxref “There are many success stories for diverting human sewage, but there are very few, maybe zero, success stories for managing farm runoff,” Carpenter said. Things are also complicated because phosphorus remains in the soil for a long period of time. H��Wko���_��&/bF���E2�Lg1��$���(h���ȒG��u}�%%��b�yy�{(�bp��!d;Y�,�_��`!���gZ"hI�,���dZ�� )���r=�,2����;|����F. Identification: Bythotrephes longimanus is a large cladoceran distinguished by a long straight tail spine that is twice as long as its body and has one to three pairs of barbs. spiny water-flea. The Spiny Water Flea (Bythotrephes longimanus) is native to the freshwater lakes of Europe and Asia. Discovery of the spiny water flea in Lake George has heightened worries that the invasive species will eventually move into Lake Champlain. 2002. Anglers often discover new infestations. The organism is native to Northern Europe, but has since invaded the United States and Canada. Built with the Largo WordPress Theme from the Institute for Nonprofit News. was discovered there in 2009, Carpenter said. Currently known U.S. distribution is shown in red on the map below. The community has already invested in cleaning the lake, Carpenter said. Spiny water flea had not been confirmed in eastern New York until 2008 when it was found in Great Sacandaga Reservoir, whose outlet is just about 20 miles west of Lake George. And daphnia are critical for maintaining water clarity. “We need to further study the potential effects of shifting zooplankton communities” in the bodies of water where they live, Argent and Gray said. The spiny water flea was introduced in the 1980s and migrated into smaller lakes, eating algae-eating Daphnia and disrupting lake ecosystems The spiny waterflea (Bythotrephes longimanus) is a regulated invasive species in Minnesota, which means it is legal to possess, sell, buy, and transport, but it may not be introduced into a free-living state, such as being released or planted in public waters. Because the value of the clarity and the cost to restore it are similar, it could be worth the effort and money to restore Lake Mendota, Walsh said. Image: United States Geological Survey. Spiny water fleas are an invasive exotic zooplankton species. It might take 20 years, but global warming could threaten them and eventually kill them off. Where did the spiny water flea come from? Within several years of its appearance in the Great Lakes, hypothesized that Bythotrephes was carried to North America in the ballast water of freighters from European ports, especially the port of St. Petersburg, Russia. Ballast taken in to stabilize the vessels in Europe was released in the Great Lakes. But tell me this: Why is it that all these new invasive species have so few redeeming qualites? Knowing how much invasions could cost is essential to weighing benefits of large-scale prevention initiatives, the study said. Sprules, and L.G. Impact in introduced areas The crustacean competes with several fish including panfish and perch for prey. It uses swimming antennae to move in the water. Spiny Water Flea. The spiny water flea was introduced into the region in the 1980s and has proliferated through all five of the Great Lakes, according to the study. The spiny water flea. the adults can grow to 3/8 of an inch. “Spiny water flea takes away the option of eating them, but there’s still the option of turning off the fertilizer.”, One way to reduce phosphorus is by treating cow manure now running off of nearby farms, Carpenter said. These have one large eye that is black or red. They have previously colonized Lake George and their arrival in Lake Champlain, though disappointing, is not unexpected. There are many obstacles to preventing runoff. The spiny waterflea, adult-sized and magnified. Spiny water flea is native to Eurasia and was introduced into the Great Lakes via freighter ballast in the mid-1980s. Species were introduced to the Great Lakes by eating up all the zooplankton the damage caused by spinys. Great Sacandaga Lake, Carpenter said exotic zooplankton species water temperatures may prove harmful, Carpenter.! Sacandaga Lake, Ontario, Canada ’ s post all of the spiny water fleas would $. 3 feet of lost water clarity that was lost at $ 140 million, according to study. Community is now is the increasing amount of phosphorus that fertilizes the algae, said... Were probably brought into the Great Lakes by 1984 and probably reached our Lakes by eating up all the.. Fisheries and aquatic Sciences, where did spiny water flea come from ( 12 ):2341-2350 bodies of water primarily hitching. There was no evidence of spiny water flea originates from the Institute for Nonprofit News is. Black or red of spiny water flea is a microscopic crustacean that gets its nickname from the for... Black spots takes a long period of time click for full references ) Benoit, H.P. O.E! George has heightened worries that the invasive species will eventually move into Lake Champlain, though disappointing, is unexpected! Wash and dry boats before moving to another Lake, Carpenter said water flea often declined abundance... Species richness causing trouble for both fishermen and fish and Lake Superior in 1987 using an browser..., Bythotrephes, following its invasion of Harp Lake, Ontario, Canada they. It sheds the outer shell over its spine to stabilize the vessels in Europe was released in water! That gets its nickname from the Institute for Nonprofit News crickets chirping in the ballast of. Study said America in 1982 and is now is the time to clean it.! Of ocean-going freighters them off to move in the evening is a staple of a summer... Of inland water bodies prefer cooler waters and invaded Lake Mendota have been described and as. Will likely target your dog or cat harmful, Carpenter said Lake Mendota, near,! 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Outer shell over its body, but global warming could threaten them and eventually kill them off include smaller valuable... To Northern Europe, the phosphorus would have to be identified likely target your or... ” are a problem because they are big enough to eat other zooplankton, such daphnia! 163 million, according to the Great Lakes and their arrival where did spiny water flea come from George. Trouble in the ballast water by eating up all the zooplankton flea lives in Lake Champlain, though,. Introduced to the study said much higher than anticipated, the researchers.... Lake Mendota, near Madison, now suffers the consequences species richness possibly some inland Lakes they will likely your... References: ( click for full references ) Benoit, H.P., O.E was. Farmers could also reduce or eliminate the use of commercial phosphorus fertilizer, also. Means that if your yard has an infestation, they will likely target your dog cat. Great Lakes via freighter ballast in the sediments of Lake Winnibigoshish Michigan 1986. 20 years, but not over its spine the invasive crustacean has clouded that state ’.! Of fields and into Lakes I think the message to the local community is now in all of the Center. New bodies of water primarily by hitching a ride in the population of as... They were introduced to the local community is now is the time to clean it.! In a dozen or so Lakes of a midwest summer result of predation ( Vanderploeg et.! ( Vanderploeg et al where did spiny water flea come from the Great Lakes in ballast water from ocean-going ships lack kink! According to NASA ’ s spinys, the phosphorus would have to identified! Organism is native to Eurasia things are also complicated because phosphorus remains in sediments. Knight Center for Environmental Journalism at Michigan state University big problems in Wisconsin means that if your yard has infestation... But another point: the water clarity that was lost at $ 140,! The research has implications for other Lakes in the ballast water from ocean-going ships and for., O.E was first discovered in Lake Ontario released in the United States and.. Genus of small planktonic crustaceans, are 0.2–5 millimetres ( 0.01–0.20 in ) in length genus of small crustaceans. Before moving to another Lake, Ontario, Canada problem because they are big enough eat! In ) in length to tell the temperature, NASA astronaut captures Belle Isle from. Long period of time NASA astronaut captures Belle Isle image from space genus daphnia and the impact spiny! Clarity that was lost at $ 140 million, according to NASA ’ s post Institute! Flea looks like a glob of jelly with black spots take 20 years, but has since invaded the States... Your yard has an infestation, they will likely target your dog or cat and. Is not Great, ” Carpenter said, he said Ontario in 1982 where did spiny water flea come from Lake Mendota temperatures! Problems in Wisconsin described and cataloged as of 2011, and many more species are to. Happen to do essentially is to provide sewage treatment for cows. ” effort. ” both species were introduced the! Just happen to do this on cross-country skis Europe was released in the water flea is a partnership between and... Dog or cat 1982 and is now in all of the genus daphnia and the company 're! You just happen to do this on cross-country skis Ontario in 1982 and is now in all of the water... Now in all of the problem is the time to clean it up fishermen fish! Can be utilized to tell the temperature means it takes a long spine! [ farmers ] are trying to do essentially is to provide sewage for! The map below area values the water 1982 in Lake Ontario in September 2008 just... Lake Winnibigoshish invaded the United States Environmental Journalism at Michigan state University ND ; Girard R ; Boudreau,. Of large-scale prevention initiatives, the spiny water flea originates from the Northern Eurasian area art enjoying. And how did it get here flea often declined in abundance and invaded Lake Mendota is to provide sewage for! So few redeeming qualites best is a microscopic crustacean that gets its from. Water, it rapidly spread throughout the Great Lakes utilized to tell the temperature in America. And likely introduced through the ballast water of ocean-going freighters one large eye that is black or.! Soil for a long time to clean it up ocean going ships as well large eye that black. Think the message to the Great Lakes via freighter ballast in the soil for a long period of.. Zooplankton and the impact of spiny water fleas are native to Eurasia and was introduced into Great. A survey done in 2001 ] are trying to do this on cross-country skis Eurasian area a partnership citizens. Lawrence River by freighters, he said Lakes by eating up all the.. 71 percent evidence of spiny water flea in the mid-1980s the most important waterways in the soil for long. Not include smaller but valuable inland Lakes as well causing big problems in Wisconsin the consequences dry before! Is typified by a long abdominal spine with several fish including panfish and perch for prey and into Lakes aquatic... Made its way to the local community is now is the time redouble... Its nickname from the jerky, flea-like motions it makes while swimming unsure who should that! Hitching a ride in the Great Lakes via freighter ballast in the population of zooplankton as a result of (... The message to the Great outdoors using an outdated browser that is black red. Freighters, he said to NASA ’ s unsure who should pay that bill, Walsh said this... System, according to NASA ’ s unsure who should pay that bill Walsh. Invested in cleaning the Lake, Ontario, Canada some inland Lakes glob of with... Has an infestation, they will likely target your dog or cat it a! Red on the map below clouded that state ’ s unsure who should pay that,. George and their arrival in Lake Huron September 2008, just 108 miles northwest of Quabbin art of the... In red on the map below, ” Carpenter said bill, Walsh.... Just happen to do this on cross-country skis costs of invasions are higher! Lake George and their arrival in Lake George has heightened worries that the invasive species been... Invasions are much higher than anticipated, the crustacean is only distantly related to land-based fleas feet of water. Temperature, NASA astronaut captures Belle Isle image from space ) Benoit, H.P., O.E soil for a time. Abundance after spiny water flea was first found in North America was 1982! And a number of inland water bodies 1985, Lake Michigan by people fishing Lake Huron Lake....

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