restoration of sand dunes pros and cons

The approaches to consider are either coral transplantation (growing corals and bringing them back to reefs where coral had died off) or artificial reefs. The project helps to protect the ecosystem of the shore. A suitable site must be found that is easy and safe to access, with permission from the landowner. The City of Cape Town is now spending R 19 million on the stabilisation and translocation of the accumulated sand; trucking 30 000 m3 from the secondary dunes in Hout Bay to replenish Sandy Bay, an endeavour likely to repeat itself every few years (Gosling 2013; Low & van Eeden 2013). It encourages new vegetation growth when the project is complete. The work must be completed within a specific time for it to be effective. It creates more room to notice jellyfish that may wash ashore which could cause an injury. BAMFORD H. 2016. 1996). Because of the cost and time involved in a replenishment project, it may not be suitable to save every beach using this method. Cons: Will need constant maintenance. Erosion is a natural part of the cycle of the beach. If a community allows their beach to be eroded away, then the numerous benefits it provides would disappear. Beach renourishment projects which include adding new vegetation to the shore tend to be the most successful. There needs to be a clear distinction between the terms “dune restoration” and “sand stabilisation” because it has become apparent that in the case of the coastal dune ecosystems of the Cape Peninsula, “dune restoration” is a misnomer. Dune nourishment. 9. ( Log Out /  Figure 3: Aerial comparison of the Hout Bay/Sandy Bay Dune Corridor – 1948 on the left and 2011 on the right (Low & van Eeden 2013). It’s crazy when you start to think about it! Using Panama Beach as an example, 840,000 cubic yards of sand were added to 4 miles of beach at the cost of $14.5 million in 2017. Even though there will be future benefits for the business to enjoy, without revenues, it may not survive until the new beach is opened. Described as an “Eco Estate” and boasting the presence of a number of elusive creatures, Cape clawless otter and Cape porcupine (Hystrix africaeaustralis), it would stand to reason that the state of the natural environment in which they have developed would be of a high priority. A safer environment for the public is created at the beach. The public does not have access to the beach during the renourishment project. During Hurricane Ivan, the beach lost 4 feet of sand. . Now apply those costs to each beach which requires renourishment. As the sand is drawn away from the shore, new ecosystems develop near the edge of the shore. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge. Beaches do more than provide a buffer against the waves. Gilgo Beach uses sand that was dredged from Fire Island Inlet to create the new beach area. Simply put, restoration efforts are aimed at inducing the transformation of the disturbed habitat in a predetermined direction (Saunders et al. It is now used around the world as a way to protect shorelines because of the effectiveness of this process. Some beaches do not benefit as much from this type of project as others because of their location, the amount of submerged sand available, and other factors that may be present geographically. By creating a wider beach with new sand, it becomes possible to prevent future damage to coastal structures. When these skipping particles land, they may knock into other particles and cause them to skip as well. This project keeps the environment stable, which means it continues to support the economy in a variety of ways. Why then are dogs allowed by their owners to roam unsupervised (Longbeach is an off-lead beach but responsibility for one’s pets is of utmost importance if the off-lead status is to continue to be enjoyed) from beach-front properties, often chasing and attacking wildlife? When a beach replenishment project is complete, it provides a stronger buffer against coastal tidal movements. Figure 4: Dunes at the Hout Bay beach engulfing municipal infrastructure (Nick Weigl). The climbing-falling dune system of the Valley has been irreversibly altered; the dunes of Fish Hoek Beach were trucked away in the 1920s, the marshlands (now known as the Lake Michelle development) have been reshaped and shrunk, the shifting sands of the corridor have been stabilised by invasive vegetation and obscured by an urban environment. An Evaluation of Habitat Rehabilitation on Coastal Dune Forests in Northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Sand dunes restoration is the process of transplanting colonies of Marram grass by finding a stable colony and transplanting sections of the plants to eroded areas of the beach. Pros and cons of implementing natural waterfront defenses for climate change in Mid-Atlantic ... dune restoration, and breakwaters. Dunes are just hills of sand at the back of the beach. Large storms, such as Hurricane Ivan in 2004, will also take large quantities of sand into deeper water, where it is no longer recoverable. 2008. During the storm and also during more normal events, sand will be transported inland, sometimes in connection with the formation of wind alleys in the dune row. It is a way for teens, residents, and even immigrants to find work when they need it. 24 of 2008, Section 1 (15.2)). Even though it is wet and may have organic components in it, there is a guarantee of consistency. 1993. ( Log Out /  A complex interaction between prevailing winds, sediment supply, moisture and vegetation content, and the geomorphology of the nearshore and beach environment determine the size and morphology of coastal dunes (Sloss et al. Thanks Cathy! 9. Property owners at beach locations don’t need to worry as much about the weather report. The fundamental question to ask is; to what structure is this dune system expected to be restored? BrigantineNOW Reader Feedback from ‘John’. As mentioned, site-specific characteristics define the parameters of the rehabilitation project and determine the eventual outcome; therefore, while restoration to a ‘former glory’ would be an ultimate goal in most cases, some situations are deemed too degraded, their functionality too compromised, and as such are merely granted a management status. A successful project protects property values, encourages new business opportunities, and better public access to the shore. 24 of 2008: Section 1, Sub-Section 15.2 and Section 2, Sub-Section 16-17. The sand can be gentle and warm and the waves lapping up against it can be very soothing. Grassing of Hout Bay Denuded Sandy Bay. In severe instances, it is possible to change the direction the waves travel when they come close to the shore. Enough erosion can cause a beach to eventually collapse. One is that Klein Slangkop is a relatively new estate (development starting in the late 1990s) and as such planning should have taken the earlier mistakes of Hout Bay into account as well as affording the sensitive nature of such a region a higher precedence. After deeming this method uneconomical, the city introduced a French technique in 1896 whereby a foredune was formed at the source of the drifting sand through the construction of wooden barriers or propagation of marram grass (Ammophila arenaria). What protection is provided is often confined to a small area. With a budget of R 500 000 per year, the City of Cape Town has managed the site for the past ten years employing methods, such as barriers of felled invasive vegetation and man-made channels, to re-establish the dunes, cover up the site and redirect the river around the waste (Bamford 2016). Management and Rehabilitation Plan for the Hout Bay Dunes. Analysing three case studies in the Cape Peninsula it becomes clear that "Dune Restoration" is a pipe dream under current conditions and the term is rather used as a guise for personal gain. The report, "Improved Use and Understanding of Figure 6: Cape clawless otter on Longbeach, Kommetjie. Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. MARTÍNEZ ML & PSUTY NP. Brigantine Jetty. Marram grass. Even simple activities, like beach combing, fishing, or metal detecting are unavailable when the beach disappears. Staghorn and elkhorn coral have become threatened species. While it is important to protect the remaining few isolated pockets of dune ecosystem in this valley, in no way can this dune system be restored to a naturally functioning system without removing the urban development, which would include the Klein Slangkop Private Estate. It may provide infrastructure benefits to the community. Deforestation is the practice of clearing a wide area of trees, so the land can be used for another purpose. The Grand Strand is known for its 60 miles of beaches. Nature Education Knowledge 3(10): 2. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.iol.co.za/capetimes/grassing-of-hout-bay-denuded-sandy-bay-1548015. That works to reduce the speed of the incoming waves. Coral reef restoration of any sort is an important tool to remedy these negative impacts. In some locations, the opposite occurs, as the tides take away more sand than it brings back. Marine life is adaptive. The first beach renourishment project in the United States was completed at Coney Island in 1923. Renourishment can protect the public and private structures behind the beach. It may be difficult to find materials that are similar to what is at the beach. Walking on the beach, the day-to-day changes in the shape and form of the dune backdrop are clearly noticeable and yet little acknowledgement seems to be afforded to their presence and these movements. 1. Six years before, the city added 1.3 million cubic yards of sand at a cost of $15.7 million. Maintains a natural-looking coastline. LOW AB & VAN EEDEN JD. If the work isn’t completed before the next major erosive event occurs, you could lose all the work you just put in to save the beach. For structures that are close to the beach, an eroding shoreline means more sand cliffs by the water, less beach, and the threat of soil removal from the foundation of the building. But, such as in Hout Bay, the encroachment of invasive vegetation and the expansion of urban development has severed the sediment linkage between Noordhoek and Fish Hoek beaches and therefore has altered and continues to alter the sediment dynamics and natural functioning of the entire corridor (Quick 2006). Fuel charges, carbon releases, and potential wave changes caused by dredging all create potential issues which may need to be addressed. As the Hout Bay/Sandy Bay and Witsands cases show, we are sometimes stuck with managing unwanted situations; the harsh reality being that actions from the past often have irreversible consequences that are still evident, more often than not magnified, in today’s setting. These form as wind carries sand and sediments from the beach in a landward direction, depositing it wherever an obstruction prevents it going further. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. That means businesses located at the shore of more revenue earning opportunities available to them. With proper structuring, a beach renourishment project may even reduce the threat of algae blooms along the shore. During storm surge events, the foot of the dunes can be eroded but the dunes act as a very flexible buffer zone, which protects the hinterland from erosion and flooding. As the tides move in and out, however, the sand of the beach also keeps moving. They’re not a good place to lay out a towel, put up an umbrella or park a car. Once you start adding new sand, an interruption occurs to the system. Before the beach renourishment work occurred along Florida’s coastline, property owners were always listening to the local meteorologist to know when rain would be predicted. For example; baitfish stocks today, when compared to numbers from fifty years ago (baseline), have declined drastically but when compared to numbers from two hundred years ago (baseline) the decline jumps exponentially. Due to the deceptively simple appearance of dune ecosystems, their high ecological importance in terms of their geomorphic dimensions, environmental heterogeneity and high species variability are often disregarded in favour of urban expansion and development (Quick 2006). The seed must be ripe, and the ground surface of the revegetation site is suitable as a seedbed (e.g. They’d need to know how much the Gulf would swell, if their property would be flooded, and if they’d have beach access after the storm. The functioning of this system mirrored that of the Hout Bay/Sandy Bay system in that the prevailing south-easterly winds transported sand from one end of the corridor, replenishing the beach upwind. Coastal Dunes: Ecology and Conservation. Sand Dunes State Forest Stakeh older Advisory Group – Meeting 6: Roads, Wrap- ... • Restoration boundary lines could be redrawn, but that net acreage of restoration in the plan ... • Has the DNR studied the pros and cons (e.g. 7. Too much erosion could cause some of the properties to no longer be structurally sound. Some Beach front condo owners argue that owners of inland property farther away from the beach should pay up to one third of the cost of replacing sand and rebuilding dunes. Nature will adapt to the new circumstances over time. Renourishment can protect the public and private structures behind the beach. When these situations occur, it may resolve an issue at one beach, but then it will cause a new problem at another location. Beach renourishment is a project which replaces sand (or other sediment) that is lost through erosion, longshore drift, or other reasons. March 24, 2013 March 24, 2013 / By BrigantineNOW. Vegetation is critical to dune formation and stabilization. The stabilisation and sand-trapping infrastructure put in place by the municipality has done just that; stabilised a mobile system and trapped large amounts of sediment form secondary dunes. You must then deposit the sand on the beach, then move it to an appropriate location. financial, environmental, etc.) Natural Flow. Shifting the baseline to which the current status of the baitfish stocks is compared changes our perception, in this case drastically escalates the situation, and should transform how we assess the success of fishing quotas and equipment restrictions. With a maintenance and management request for wind net placement and installation again going out to tender in early February 2017, the trucks will be back and the landscape once again altered. A Review of Coastal Dune Stabilisation in the Cape Province of South Africa. Mine is, “How can we improve the function and resiliency of restored sand dunes in… Now that most projects are complete, the seawall is no longer seen as the last line of defense for the property. Why are dunes being flattened and landscaped for boardwalks when the beach access points, taking the form of the dune with minimal impact, have been in place for decades? These rules were not in place several years ago, which means sewer pipes, power lines, potable water, and other infrastructure items may be close to the shore. SLOSS CR, HESP P & SHEPARD M. 2012a. The seaward property boundary of this development falls approximately 30 m from the HWM, well within the Coastal Protection Zone. This implies emulating a defined undisturbed ecosystem but achieving only partial success (Bradshaw 1990; van Aarde et al. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.iol.co.za/news/south-africa/western-cape/r500k-a-year-spent-on-dump-site-2002283. The shocking truth however is lurking beneath the surface of the shifting white sands… until the mid-1980s, Witsands was used by the former Divisional Council of the Cape as a municipal landfill site and the rubbish still in-situ is between three and four metres deep. Before the 1990s, even small storms impacted local businesses. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. The use of invasive marram grass and Acacia species presented clear-cut effects on the dune ecosystem; producing dense monotypic stands that acted to crowd out the indigenous vegetation, altering nutrient cycling and the natural dynamics of the system and modifying fire regimes (increasing the frequency and intensity at which the fires burn). I did not manage to track down the EIA but find it interesting that, given the issues in Hout Bay, development is still able to occur on sand dunes. The Pros of Beach Renourishment 1. To see the sprinklers running in a howling south-easter defies logic! Analysing aerial photographs of the Fish Hoek Valley Dune Corridor dating back to 1945, it becomes clear that this valley has undergone extensive development over the past seven decades. I would like to also extend my gratitude to the Chief Directorate: National Geospatial Information within the Department of Rural Development and Land Reform for providing me with flight paths and aerial photographs, dating back to 1934, of the Cape Peninsula as well as maps and general development plans for Kommetjie and the Klein Slangkop Estate. 7. The tides and storms will still rip sand away, making many projects a temporary fix to a permanent problem. Beach erosion produces numerous safety issues over time that may impact how the public uses the space. The beach is always extended horizontally into the water to create a wider space, which drives life away from its established habitat. No event occurs in isolation, our actions have repercussions that transcend space and time and as such should form an integral part of the decision-making process in current situations because the outcomes of these form the foundations of future scenarios. For a beach replenishment project to be successful, it must use sand that is compatible with what is currently at the beach. of keeping the roads planted on sand dunes stabilises the dunes and helps to trap sand to build them up. 1. The newly extended fence and its overabundance of established estate access points now includes a more significant portion of coastal public property and it appears to allow estate home-owners exclusive access to the dunes; their children and dogs often seen playing in them (Fig 22 & 23). My hypothesis is we could get more dunes forming along the road and what we are doing is recreating a dune field” (Gosling 2013). These beaches not only support our local economy and tourism, but they also help protect over $3.5 billion worth of shorefront property and provide critical … Although there are coordinating protection structures that can help the beach, the nature of sand is that it will erode with any water movement. This structure reduces taxpayer costs while still encouraging people to come to the beach whenever they want. Pros: Low costing plants comparing to erosion, and stabilizes the dune. Success depends on the void to solid ratio of the fence, the availability of blown sand, the frequency of wave attack at the fence and the amount of vegetation available to stabilise the accumulated sand. A coastal dune field is a complex and extremely dynamic system, the shifting sands continually being acted on by forces of erosion and replenishment. Rehabilitation has been defined as a modulated change in an ecosystem after a discrete disturbance event, with the explicit aim of improving ecosystem structure and function. Coastal Dunes: Geomorphology. Adding sand to the beach does not solve the problem of erosion. There are reduced sharps from rocks, driftwood, and litter which could impact the user experience. It is a place where families head on warm days to enjoy swimming. The loss of shoreline is the same as … GOSLING M. 2013. There are times when the beach will grow. Strategies for improving dune restoration success Science begins with a question. BRADSHAW AD. 19 Advantages and Disadvantages of Deforestation. Figure 24: Non-biodegradable netting (Megan Sivewright), Figure 25: Fence posts washed out of the structure, Figure 26: More debris being added to the coastal environment, Figure 28: Irrigation of the dunes defies logic. Then Hurricane Katrina took more sand away as the beach tried to continue its recovery efforts. 8. With no excessive urban sprawl encroaching on the immediate surrounding area, this little bay looks to be the epitome of a natural system retaining a high level of functionality. the frontal half of the primary dune, above the 100-year still water elevation (Figure 1) as the critical parameter for protection against a 100-year storm event. BSc (Hons), University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa. It helps to stop erosion and prevent new issues at the same time. Coastal development plays a considerable role in not only the destruction of the immediate surrounding environment but also in the disruption of sediment flow between beaches. It is an expensive project to complete. Thank uou for your research work. On Long Island, the Army Corps of Engineers has engineered, then built three different beaches which are intended to reduce the risks of erosion. 3. 2. 6. These programs are however required to meet various criteria and the parameters of the restoration need to be clearly defined so as to assess whether or not their goals have been attained. It develops the foundation for a larger, permanent beach in the future. high use areas. The mere presence of the trucks in such a sensitive environment calls into question the validity of the Conservancy and highlights the fact that covering up the landfill site takes precedence over ensuring the integrity of a naturally functioning system. It becomes a payoff between restoring the dunes to a naturally functioning system within an area restricted and impacted by the urban environment and minimising the inconvenience that the shifting sands will have on this urban environment. To help pay for the cost of the replenishment activities, entry fees are charged is someone hasn’t purchased a recreational permit to use the area. What’s so great about sand dunes? Our planet is covered by more than 10 billion acres of forests, which is over 30% of its entirety. Most people don’t need to meet specific educational or work experience requirements to obtain employment in the tourism industry. Feb 12, 2018 Feb 19, 2018 by Brandon Gaille. Beach Renourishment Project Our Beaches are Open! Westport residents voice pros and cons of Beach Avenue proposals ... a $120,000 state grant for dune restoration. The Hout Bay/Sandy Bay case study in Cape Town is a classic example of what not to do when developing and expanding the urban sprawl in a sensitive coastal environment. When a beach replenishment project is complete, it provides a stronger buffer against coastal tidal movements. The use of the term "Dune Restoration" in scenarios where restoration measures are questionable and restoration goals undefined, is misleading and incorrect. Figure 18: Fence erected in 2015 (foreground) and original fence (background), Figure 19: Infrastructure at Klein Slangkop being undermined by wave action (Megan Sivewright), Figure 20: Beach-cast kelp used to stabilise the dunes and prevent sand blowing into beach-front properties, Figure 21: Barriers of felled invasive vegetation, Figure 22: Children and dogs from the estate are often seen playing in the dunes, Figure 23: Estate home-owners enjoy exclusive access to the dunes. succession to an earlier stage, in order to create suitable conditions for the restoration of these protected habitat types. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.houtbayheritage.org.za/Hout-Bay-dune-management-report-Vol-2-final.pdf. Why not call a spade a spade? By adding new beach space, a community is adding new economic benefits which support everyone because the wages stay local. Breakwaters can be installed to reduce wave strength or create jetties where the sand can be trapped. Nature Conservation 3: The Reconstruction of Fragmented Ecosystems. Although seasonal renourishment projects are usually completed in under a month (and some in under a week), extensive projects may require 2+ years to complete. Pros and cons of implementing natural waterfront defenses for climate change in Mid-Atlantic. If you dredge the bottom of an offshore location, there is always a chance that you could change how the tides impact the beach. When new sediments are added to the beach, it may bury marine life. One such example would be Witsand Beach (Fig 5). 2012a). ... A wide range of grain sizes have been employed in beach and dune restoration projects around the world, ranging from very fine to small gravel (Nordstrom 2008). Ah great, would love to hear what he thinks . List of the Pros of Beach Renourishment 1. Beach renourishment can be used to create specific areas of risk reduction. Really interesting, Sally – and I’ll bet most property owners in those sensitive areas aren’t aware of the distinction between restoration and stabilisation! The Reclamation of Derelict Land and the Ecology of Ecosystems (53-74) in Jordan WR, Gilpin ME & Aber JD (eds); Restoration Ecology: A Synthetic Approach to Ecological Research. Report PO 4501955067. Dune fencing to control wind erosion and encourage dune stability has been undertaken over many centuries. Dunes that are only slightly damaged may be repaired by planting vegetation in bare areas, giving stressed grasses a judicious amount of fertilizer, and protecting the area from trampling and traffic. Even though it was realised in as early as the 1940s that invasive species out-compete their indigenous counterparts, extensively altering the natural ecosystem, it wasn’t until the mid-1970s that the use of these methods was eventually limited (Avis 1989). Since the first project, which added over two miles of beach space, various projects have helped to protect Brighton Beach and other areas to create the foundation of a permanent protection area. The problem is urban development in a coastal dune ecosystem; a situation that cannot be solved by the mere erection of an inadequate fence that’s only accomplishment is that of injuring animals (the wire used is thin and not at all conducive to an environment that facilitates frequent movement of animals between the ocean, the dunes and the pockets of coastal vegetation) and incapable of restoring any form of sand dune. Most locations require a repeated renourishment application for the work to be effective. 5. ( Log Out /  VAN AARDE RJ, FERREIRA SM, KRITZINGER JJ, VAN DYK PJ, VOGT M & WASSENAAR TD. Seeds were initially sown directly into the sand but in 1875 this method was abandoned in favour of first covering the dunes with refuse, generated by the city’s inhabitants, in order to temporarily stabilise them before the seed-sowing commenced. When a renourishment project is successful, it can promote higher sustainability levels. Makes me think of the road, and a house or two, in Betty’s Bay below Sandy Mountain (as we called it), that were constantly converted into sand dunes. 2013. A seasonal wetland in the dune slacks adds to the ecological importance of the area. Sand can When a renourishment project is taking place, the beach is no longer safe for public use. 17 Important Pros and Cons of Deforestation. Historically, sediment would be driven north by the prevailing south-easterly winds during summer, replenishing Sandy Bay, the cessation of this sediment supply has subsequently resulted in the denuding (pun intended) of Sandy Bay and the engulfment of municipal infrastructures in Hout Bay (Fig 4). The waves against the beach causes erosion to occur and sometimes more sand goes out to the water than is deposited by the incoming waves. In other words, what are the goals for this restoration project? ( Log out / change ), University of Cape Town, South Africa it is guarantee... Or click an icon to Log in: you are commenting using Google! Introduced, either as seeds or as seed-bearing branches, to the beach, it! Case of Umhlanga rocks that disruption may continue with ongoing wave pattern changes or other changing shore life which... Other eastern South Island sites the dunes are natural barriers against the movement of the cost and time in! Project protects property values keeps the environment stable, which means local taxpayers are footing bill... Coral reef restoration of any sort is an important tool to remedy these negative impacts breach... Structure reduces taxpayer costs while still encouraging people to come to the system opportunities, the. Suitable conditions for the work must be added to the littoral budget the... Issue to a different community VOGT m & WASSENAAR TD for the property posts... Sites, brush can be very soothing compatible with what is at the.. Beaches are an effective buffer against coastal tidal movements work, other structures be... An icon to Log in: you are commenting using your Google account then erosion issues may enhanced. Of this work, other structures must be completed within a specific time for it to be considered when “! 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As in most other eastern South Island sites the dunes and helps to slow the process of.! Beneath the water to prevent flooding issues which may have organic components in it there... Defense for the Hout Bay beach engulfing municipal infrastructure ( Nick Weigl ): //www.iol.co.za/capetimes/grassing-of-hout-bay-denuded-sandy-bay-1548015 you are using... Goals for this restoration project Fish Hoek – Noordhoek dune Corridor effectiveness of this work, other structures must added... Stabilise shifting sands, although not without its own suite of detrimental consequences yet know what is currently the. Be carefully evaluated before beginning this type of project and warm and ground. To pay in addition to the beach disappears and their vegetation scratches at your legs as you your! Maureen, I ’ m there well within the coastal protection Zone is during... Brings in some sand while taking some away with each movement calculated the. 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