Cacao beans for chocolate emerged as an export product as Europeans developed a taste for sweetened chocolate. The image of mounted Araucanians capturing and carrying off white women was the embodiment of Spanish ideas of civilization and barbarism.  Presidios had a resident commanders, who set up commercial enterprises of imported merchandise, selling it to soldiers as well as Indian allies. On the mainland of colonies, Spain ended African slavery in the eighteenth century. “House of Welser” in Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture, vol. Additional Reading Burgan, Michael. The arrival of Christopher Columbus in the northern Caribbean with three Spanish ships in October 1492 marked the beginning of continuing European contact with the Americas. The crown established control over trade and emigration to the Indies with the 1503 establishment the Casa de Contratación (House of Trade) in Seville. Jamaica, Trinidad, Saint-Domingue, Aruba, Curaçao, and Bonaire are generally thought of as English, French, and Dutch colonies, though each was previously colonized by Spain for a century or longer. You could not be signed in, please check and try again. Spanish colonization.  He is a controversial figure in the current era, with an equestrian statue commemorating him removed from public display in 2020.. Warren, J. Benedict. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press|1985.  It was governed by the president of the Audiencia of Bogotá, and comprised an area corresponding mainly to modern-day Colombia and parts of Venezuela. Other notable historical figures in the production are Malinche, Cortés cultural translator, and other conquerors Pedro de Alvarado, Cristóbal de Olid, Bernal Díaz del Castillo. The creation of the ecclesiastical hierarchy of the diocesan clergy marked a turning point in the crown's control over the religious sphere. These could be sold in markets and thereby converted to cash. The Spanish Caribbean: 1821-1898: The loss of Santo Domingo in 1821 is a particular blow to Spanish pride, since the island of Hispaniola was the first of Columbus' discoveries to be colonized. African slaves processing sugar cane on the Caribbean island of Hispaniola, 1595 engraving by Theodor de Bry with modern watercolor. His fall from power is viewed as an example of the weakening of the crown in the mid-seventeenth century since it failed to protect their duly appointed bishop. One was the presence or absence of dense, hierarchically organized indigenous populations that could be made to work. , Most Spanish settlers came to the Indies as permanent residents, established families and businesses, and sought advancement in the colonial system, such as membership of cabildos, so that they were in the hands of local, American-born (crillo) elites. ‘’The Aztecs under Spanish Rule.  Upon their failure to effectively protect the indigenous and following the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire and the Spanish conquest of Peru, more stringent laws to control conquerors' and settlers' exercise of power, especially their maltreatment of the indigenous populations, were promulgated, known as the New Laws (1542). Hernán Cortés requested Franciscan and Dominican friars be sent to New Spain immediately after the conquest of Tenochtitlan to begin evangelization. Each order set up networks of parishes in the various regions (provinces), sited in existing indigenous settlements, where Christian churches were built and where evangelization of the indigenous was based. Thererafter, when the limited supply of gold is exhausted, the Spanish West Indies survive as part of the broader economy of Spanish America. Seeking their own share of the apparent wealth the Spanish found in the Caribbean islands, other European powers moved to establish their own settlements in the region in the seventeenth century. , The exploitation and demographic catastrophe that indigenous peoples experienced from Spanish rule in the Caribbean also occurred Many parts of the Americas soon came to be under the rule of Europeans, resulting in large migrations, exchange of goods, and contagious diseases. Most agriculture and ranching supplied local needs, since transportation was difficult, slow, and expensive. Dominican friar Antonio de Montesinos denounced Spanish cruelty and abuse in a sermon in 1511, which comes down to us in the writings of Dominican friar Bartolomé de las Casas.  For the Andean area, there are an increasing number of publications as well. “The Spanish Borderlands, Historiography Redux.”, Spanish Exploration and Conquest of North America, This page was last edited on 29 November 2020, at 16:36. The veedor, or overseer, position quickly disappeared in most jurisdictions, subsumed into the position of factor. The crown set the indigenous communities legally apart from Spaniards (as well as Blacks), who comprised the República de Españoles, with the creation of the República de Indios. The history of the Caribbean reveals the significant role the region played in the colonial struggles of the European powers since the 15th century. Spanish Caribbean colonies play an important part within the broader narrative, and are well represented in six chapters devoted to the colonial period. Expeditions continued into the 1540s and regional capitals founded by the 1550s. In the Americas, the first encomiendas were handed out by Christopher Columbus in the Caribbean. Informal commerce of the Spanish colonies with the Dutch islands. Rowe, John. 15 vols. 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